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Phys Rev Lett. 2013 Sep 13;111(11):110801. Epub 2013 Sep 12.

Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link.

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Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany.


To compare the increasing number of optical frequency standards, highly stable optical signals have to be transferred over continental distances. We demonstrate optical-frequency transfer over a 1840-km underground optical fiber link using a single-span stabilization. The low inherent noise introduced by the fiber allows us to reach short term instabilities expressed as the modified Allan deviation of 2×10(-15) for a gate time τ of 1 s reaching 4×10(-19) in just 100 s. We find no systematic offset between the sent and transferred frequencies within the statistical uncertainty of about 3×10(-19). The spectral noise distribution of our fiber link at low Fourier frequencies leads to a τ(-2) slope in the modified Allan deviation, which is also derived theoretically.

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