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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Jan;25(1):167-74. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2012121197. Epub 2013 Sep 26.

BP control and left ventricular hypertrophy regression in children with CKD.

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  • 1Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York;


In adult patients with CKD, hypertension is linked to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy, but whether this association exists in children with CKD has not been determined conclusively. To assess the relationship between BP and left ventricular hypertrophy, we prospectively analyzed data from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort. In total, 478 subjects were enrolled, and 435, 321, and 142 subjects remained enrolled at years 1, 3, and 5, respectively. Echocardiograms were obtained 1 year after study entry and then every 2 years; BP was measured annually. A linear mixed model was used to assess the effect of BP on left ventricular mass index, which was measured at three different visits, and a mixed logistic model was used to assess left ventricular hypertrophy. These models were part of a joint longitudinal and survival model to adjust for informative dropout. Predictors of left ventricular mass index included systolic BP, anemia, and use of antihypertensive medications other than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Predictors of left ventricular hypertrophy included systolic BP, female sex, anemia, and use of other antihypertensive medications. Over 4 years, the adjusted prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy decreased from 15.3% to 12.6% in a systolic BP model and from 15.1% to 12.6% in a diastolic BP model. These results indicate that a decline in BP may predict a decline in left ventricular hypertrophy in children with CKD and suggest additional factors that warrant additional investigation as predictors of left ventricular hypertrophy in these patients.

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