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PLoS One. 2013 Sep 17;8(9):e75681. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075681. eCollection 2013.

The impact of the receptor of hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM) on human urothelial transitional cell cancer of the bladder.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, Essen Medical School, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Abstract

Hyaluronan (HA) is a carbohydrate of the extracellular matrix with tumor promoting effects in a variety of cancers. The present study addressed the role of HA matrix for progression and prognosis of human bladder cancer by studying the expression and function of HA-related genes.

METHODS:

Tissue samples of 120 patients with different stages of transitional cell bladder cancer, who underwent surgical treatment for bladder cancer at the University Hospital of Essen were analysed. mRNA-expression levels of HA synthases (HAS1-3) and HA-receptors (RHAMM and CD44) were evaluated by real time RT-PCR in comparison to healthy bladder tissue as control. In uni- and multivariate cox proportional hazard survival regression analysis, the impact of the gene expression levels on survival was assessed. In vitro knock-down of RHAMM, CD44 and HAS isoenzymes was achieved by siRNA and lentiviral shRNA in J82 bladder cancer cells. Transfected cells were analysed in vitro with regard to proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. J82 cells after knock-down of RHAMM were xenografted into male nu/nu athymic mice to monitor tumor progression in vivo.

RESULTS:

In invasive tumor stages RHAMM-, HAS1 and HAS2 mRNA-expression levels were elevated whereas HAS3v1 was reduced as compared to non-invasive tumors. Subsequently, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed reduced bladder cancer specific survival in patients with high RHAMM mRNA and low HAS3v1 expression. Elevated RHAMM in invasive tumors was confirmed by RHAMM immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that only RHAMM expression was associated with poor prognosis independent from other survival factors (HR=2.389, 95% CI 1.227-4.651, p=0.01). Lentiviral RHAMM knock-down revealed reduced J82 cell proliferation in vitro and reduced xenograft tumor growth in vivo.

CONCLUSION:

The data suggest that RHAMM plays a crucial role in mediating progression of muscle-invasive bladder cancer and recommends RHAMM for further evaluation as a prognostic marker or therapeutic target in bladder cancer therapy.

PMID:
24069434
PMCID:
PMC3775893
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0075681
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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