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Braz J Med Biol Res. 2013 Sep;46(9):752-7. doi: 10.1590/1414-431X20133232. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

A detailed description of an economical setup for electroporation of chick embryos in ovo.

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Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, São PauloSP, Brasil.


One of the challenges of the postgenomic era is characterizing the function and regulation of specific genes. For various reasons, the early chick embryo can easily be adopted as an in vivo assay of gene function and regulation. The embryos are robust, accessible, easily manipulated, and maintained in the laboratory. Genomic resources centered on vertebrate organisms increase daily. As a consequence of optimization of gene transfer protocols by electroporation, the chick embryo will probably become increasingly popular for reverse genetic analysis. The challenge of establishing chick embryonic electroporation might seem insurmountable to those who are unfamiliar with experimental embryological methods. To minimize the cost, time, and effort required to establish a chick electroporation assay method, we describe and illustrate in great detail the procedures involved in building a low-cost electroporation setup and the basic steps of electroporation.

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