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Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Oct;32(10):e406-13. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31829b80ee.

Evaluation of risk for late language emergence after in utero antiretroviral drug exposure in HIV-exposed uninfected infants.

Author information

1
From the *Speech, Language, Hearing Department, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS; †Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; ‡Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; §Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY; ¶Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Chicago, IL; ‖Epidemiology and Statistics Program, Division of Scientific Programs, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; **Department of Research Pediatrics, Maternal, Child and Adolescent Program for Infectious Diseases and Virology, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA; ††Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA; and ‡‡National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Combination antiretroviral (cARV) regimens are recommended for pregnant women with HIV to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Safety is a concern for infants who were HIV-exposed but uninfected, particularly for neurodevelopmental problems, such as language delays.

METHODS:

We studied late language emergence (LLE) in HIV-exposed but uninfected children enrolled in a US-based prospective cohort study. LLE was defined as a caregiver-reported score ≤10th percentile in any of 4 domains of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory for 1-year olds and as ≥1 standard deviation below age-specific norms for the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for 2-year olds. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of in utero cARV exposure with LLE, adjusting for infant, maternal and environmental characteristics.

RESULTS:

1129 language assessments were conducted among 792 1- and 2-year-old children (50% male, 62% black and 37% Hispanic). Overall, 86% had in utero exposure to cARV and 83% to protease inhibitors. LLE was identified in 26% of 1-year olds and 23% of 2-year olds, with higher rates among boys. In adjusted models, LLE was not associated with maternal cARV or ARV drug classes in either age group. Among cARV-exposed 1-year olds, increased odds of LLE was observed for those exposed to atazanavir (adjusted odds ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-3.04), particularly after the first trimester (adjusted odds ratio = 3.56, P = 0.001), compared with atazanavir-unexposed infants. No associations of individual ARV drugs with LLE were observed among 2-year olds.

CONCLUSIONS:

In utero cARV exposure showed little association with LLE, except for a higher risk of language delay observed in 1-year-old infants with atazanavir exposure.

PMID:
24067563
PMCID:
PMC3785009
DOI:
10.1097/INF.0b013e31829b80ee
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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