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Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Dec;57(12):1722-30. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit640. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

Effects of immunocompromise and comorbidities on pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive respiratory infection in adults: implications for vaccine strategies.

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Respiratory Medicine Department.



The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has recently been approved for use in immunocompromised adults. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between specific underlying conditions and infection by individual serotypes. The objective was to determine the prevalence of serotypes covered by PCV13 in a cohort of patients with invasive pneumococcal disease of respiratory origin and to determine whether there are specific risk factors for each serotype.


An observational study of adults hospitalized with invasive pneumococcal disease in 2 Spanish hospitals was conducted during the period 1996-2011. A multinomial regression analysis was performed to identify conditions associated with infection by specific serotypes (grouped according their formulation in vaccines and individually).


A total of 1094 patients were enrolled; the infecting serotype was determined in 993. In immunocompromised patients, 64% of infecting serotypes were covered by PCV13. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol abuse, and nonimmunocompromising comorbidities, the group of serotypes not included in either PCV13 or PPV23 were more frequently isolated in patients with immunocompromising conditions and cardiopulmonary comorbidities. Regarding individual serotypes, 6A, 23F, 11A, and 33F were isolated more frequently in patients with immunocompromise and specifically in some of their subgroups. The subgroup analysis showed that serotype10A was also associated with HIV infection.


Specific factors related to immunocompromise seem to determine the appearance of invasive infection by specific pneumococcal serotypes. Although the coverage of serotypes in the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) was high, some non-PCV13-emergent serotypes are more prevalent in immunocompromised patients.


conjugate vaccine; immunocompromise; pneumococcal pneumonia

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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