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Ann Epidemiol. 2013 Dec;23(12):750-6. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.07.022. Epub 2013 Sep 20.

Incidence of sport-related traumatic brain injury and risk factors of severity: a population-based epidemiologic study.

Author information

1
Division of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC. Electronic address: selassie@musc.edu.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Few studies of sport-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) are population-based or rely on directly observed data on cause, demographic characteristics, and severity. This study addresses the epidemiology of sport-related TBI in a large population.

METHODS:

Data on all South Carolina hospital and emergency department encounters for TBI, 1998-2011, were analyzed. Annual incidence rate of sport-related TBI was calculated, and rates were compared across demographic groups. Sport-related TBI severity was modeled as a function of demographic and TBI characteristics using logistic regression.

RESULTS:

A total of 16,642 individuals with sport-related TBI yielded an average annual incidence rate of 31.5/100,000 population with a steady increase from 19.7 in 1998 to 45.6 in 2011. The most common mechanisms of sport-related TBI were kicked in football (38.1%), followed by fall injuries in sports (20.3%). Incidence rate was greatest in adolescents ages 12-18 (120.6/100,000/persons). Severe sport-related TBI was strongly associated with off-road vehicular sport (odds ratio [OR], 4.73; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.92-7.67); repeated head trauma (OR, 4.36; 95% CI, 3.69-5.15); equestrian sport (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.64-4.51); and falls during sport activities (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.67-4.46).

CONCLUSIONS:

The high incidence of sport-related TBI in youth, potential for repetitive mild TBI, and its long-term consequences on learning warrants coordinated surveillance activities and population-based outcome studies.

KEYWORDS:

Concussion; Mechanism of injury; Repetitive TBI; Severity; Sport-related TBI

PMID:
24060276
PMCID:
PMC4021712
DOI:
10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.07.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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