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Future Microbiol. 2013 Oct;8(10):1325-37. doi: 10.2217/fmb.13.101.

Mechanisms of Candida biofilm drug resistance.

Author information

1
Departments of Medicine & Medical Microbiology & Immunology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Abstract

Candida commonly adheres to implanted medical devices, growing as a resilient biofilm capable of withstanding extraordinarily high antifungal concentrations. As currently available antifungals have minimal activity against biofilms, new drugs to treat these recalcitrant infections are urgently needed. Recent investigations have begun to shed light on the mechanisms behind the profound resistance associated with the biofilm mode of growth. This resistance appears to be multifactorial, involving both mechanisms similar to conventional, planktonic antifungal resistance, such as increased efflux pump activity, as well as mechanisms specific to the biofilm lifestyle. A unique biofilm property is the production of an extracellular matrix. Two components of this material, β-glucan and extracellular DNA, promote biofilm resistance to multiple antifungals. Biofilm formation also engages several stress response pathways that impair the activity of azole drugs. Resistance within a biofilm is often heterogeneous, with the development of a subpopulation of resistant persister cells. In this article we review the molecular mechanisms underlying Candida biofilm antifungal resistance and their relative contributions during various growth phases.

PMID:
24059922
PMCID:
PMC3859465
DOI:
10.2217/fmb.13.101
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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