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JAKSTAT. 2012 Jul 1;1(3):184-90. doi: 10.4161/jkst.22071.

The JAK-STAT pathway and hematopoietic stem cells from the JAK2 V617F perspective.

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1
Stem Cell Group; Nordic EMBL Partnership; Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway (NCMM); University of Oslo; Oslo, Norway ; Department of Hematology; Oslo University Hospital; Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

Janus kinases (JAKs) are non-receptor tyrosine kinases essential for activation of signaling mediated by cytokine receptors that lack catalytic activity, including receptors for erythropoietin, thrombopoietin, most interleukins and interferon. Upon hormone binding, JAKs phosphorylate tyrosine residues in the receptor cytoplasmic domains and in JAKs themselves leading to recruitment and activation of downstream signaling proteins such as signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT). The JAK-STAT pathway is important for functional hematopoiesis and several activating mutations in JAK proteins have recently been described as underlying cause of blood disorders. One of the best studied examples is the JAK2 V617F mutant which is found in 95% of polycythemia vera patients and 50% of patients suffering from essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. Much effort has been made to understand how the JAK2 V617F affects hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) renewal and lineage differentiation, since convincing evidence has been provided to support the notion that the mutation is acquired at the HSC level. We discuss several in vivo models that support contrary conclusions with respect to the advantage given to HSCs by JAK2 V617F. Moreover, we provide the current knowledge about STAT5 activation and its link to HSC expansion as well as amplification of the erythroid compartment. Evidence for both JAK2 V617F mutated HSCs exhibiting skewed differentiation potential and for amplification occurring after erythroid commitment has been provided, and we will discuss whether this evidence is relevant for the disease.

KEYWORDS:

JAK-STAT; JAK2 V617F; hematopoietic stem cells; mouse models; myeloproliferative disorders

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