Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Genetics. 2013 Dec;195(4):1385-95. doi: 10.1534/genetics.113.154476. Epub 2013 Sep 20.

A novel intronic single nucleotide polymorphism in the myosin heavy polypeptide 4 gene is responsible for the mini-muscle phenotype characterized by major reduction in hind-limb muscle mass in mice.

Author information

Department of Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio 43015.


Replicated artificial selection for high levels of voluntary wheel running in an outbred strain of mice favored an autosomal recessive allele whose primary phenotypic effect is a 50% reduction in hind-limb muscle mass. Within the High Runner (HR) lines of mice, the numerous pleiotropic effects (e.g., larger hearts, reduced total body mass and fat mass, longer hind-limb bones) of this hypothesized adaptive allele include functional characteristics that facilitate high levels of voluntary wheel running (e.g., doubling of mass-specific muscle aerobic capacity, increased fatigue resistance of isolated muscles, longer hind-limb bones). Previously, we created a backcross population suitable for mapping the responsible locus. We phenotypically characterized the population and mapped the Minimsc locus to a 2.6-Mb interval on MMU11, a region containing ∼100 known or predicted genes. Here, we present a novel strategy to identify the genetic variant causing the mini-muscle phenotype. Using high-density genotyping and whole-genome sequencing of key backcross individuals and HR mice with and without the mini-muscle mutation, from both recent and historical generations of the HR lines, we show that a SNP representing a C-to-T transition located in a 709-bp intron between exons 11 and 12 of the Myosin heavy polypeptide 4 (Myh4) skeletal muscle gene (position 67,244,850 on MMU11; assembly, December 2011, GRCm38/mm10; ENSMUSG00000057003) is responsible for the mini-muscle phenotype, Myh4(Minimsc). Using next-generation sequencing, our approach can be extended to identify causative mutations arising in mouse inbred lines and thus offers a great avenue to overcome one of the most challenging steps in quantitative genetics.


Myh4Minimsc; Ntn1; causative variant; experimental evolution; gene of major effect; voluntary wheel running

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center