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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Feb;69(2):331-42. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt358. Epub 2013 Sep 20.

Systematic review of allelic exchange experiments aimed at identifying mutations that confer drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Improving our understanding of the relationship between the genotype and the drug resistance phenotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis will aid the development of more accurate molecular diagnostics for drug-resistant tuberculosis. Studies that use direct genetic manipulation to identify the mutations that cause M. tuberculosis drug resistance are superior to associational studies in elucidating an individual mutation's contribution to the drug resistance phenotype.

METHODS:

We systematically reviewed the literature for publications reporting allelic exchange experiments in any of the resistance-associated M. tuberculosis genes. We included studies that introduced single point mutations using specialized linkage transduction or site-directed/in vitro mutagenesis and documented a change in the resistance phenotype.

RESULTS:

We summarize evidence supporting the causal relationship of 54 different mutations in eight genes (katG, inhA, kasA, embB, embC, rpoB, gyrA and gyrB) and one intergenic region (furA-katG) with resistance to isoniazid, the rifamycins, ethambutol and fluoroquinolones. We observed a significant role for the strain genomic background in modulating the resistance phenotype of 21 of these mutations and found examples of where the same drug resistance mutations caused varying levels of resistance to different members of the same drug class.

CONCLUSIONS:

This systematic review highlights those mutations that have been shown to causally change phenotypic resistance in M. tuberculosis and brings attention to a notable lack of allelic exchange data for several of the genes known to be associated with drug resistance.

KEYWORDS:

M. tuberculosis; SNPs; genetics; in vitro resistance; microbial susceptibility tests

PMID:
24055765
PMCID:
PMC3886931
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dkt358
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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