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Am J Cardiol. 2013 Nov 15;112(10):1646-51. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.07.024. Epub 2013 Sep 19.

Risk factors for pericardial effusion in native valve infective endocarditis and its influence on outcome.

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Cardiology Service, Hospital Clínic, Institut d'Investigacions Bomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.


Data on the incidence, associated factors, and prognosis of pericardial effusion (PE) in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) are scarce. Patients with native valve IE were prospectively followed in our center from 1990 to 2007. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent variables associated with PE and mortality. We included 479 episodes of IE from 459 patients (70% men, mean age 51 years). Small-to-moderate PE was observed in 109 episodes (23%) and large-to-very large PE was observed in 9 episodes (2%). Patients with small-to-moderate PE had a greater prevalence of intravenous drug use (38% vs 23%) and more frequent right-sided IE than patients without PE (33% vs 17%). Patients with large-to-very large PE had a higher rate of systemic emboli (22% vs 18%) and periannular abscess (22% vs 6%) than patients without PE. Renal failure was associated with a higher risk of PE (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 3.3); age was associated with a lower risk of PE (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99). One-year mortality of patients with IE with large-to-very large PE was higher than that of patients with small-to-moderate and absence of PE (56%, 18%, and 24%, respectively, p = 0.033). Large-to-very large PE increases the 1-year mortality of IE (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 7.9). In conclusion, renal failure and younger age are associated with a higher risk of PE. Large-to-very large PE was associated with an increase in 1-year mortality.

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