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BJU Int. 2014 Mar;113(3):468-75. doi: 10.1111/bju.12284. Epub 2013 Dec 2.

Does robot-assisted laparoscopic ileocystoplasty (RALI) reduce peritoneal adhesions compared with open surgery?

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Pediatric Urology, Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences Division, Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA.



To compare perioperative outcomes between open ileocystoplasty and robot-assisted laparoscopic ileocystoplasty (RALI) in a porcine model, as objective data comparing outcomes between these two approaches in children with neurogenic bladder are lacking. We specifically examined differences in postoperative peritoneal adhesion formation between the groups.


In all, 20 pigs were assigned to an open ileocystoplasty or RALI study arm. All the pigs underwent an initial urodynamic study (UDS). In the RALI arm, reconstructive steps were performed intracorporeally using a standard da Vinci(®) system. Postoperatively, variables including first stool, weight gain, and complications were recorded. After 42 days, the pigs underwent a final UDS followed by adhesion assessment. Intraperitoneal adhesions were quantified by a third-party 'blinded' surgeon according to previously described objective scoring systems.


Preoperative variables including UDS were similar in both groups. Overall operating time was significantly shorter for open ileocystoplasty than for RALI (149 vs 287 min, P < 0.001, respectively). Postoperatively, all variables including time to first stool, weight gain, and urodynamic parameters were similar amongst the groups. Pigs in the open arm developed significantly more adhesions (P = 0.02) and adhesions with a higher complexity (P = 0.04).


In this porcine model, RALI achieved similar functional outcomes as the open approach, but required longer procedural times. The number and complexity of surgical adhesions among the groups favoured the RALI cohort. This may be of clinical significance in the paediatric spina bifida population, who generally undergo multiple surgical procedures in their lifetime, with increased risk for development of adhesions and subsequent intestinal obstruction.


adhesions; bladder augmentation; neurogenic bladder; robotic ileocystoplasty

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