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Diabetes Technol Ther. 2013 Oct;15(10):817-24. doi: 10.1089/dia.2013.0094.

The effect of congestive heart failure on sensor accuracy among hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes.

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Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The Ohio State University , Columbus, Ohio.



Congestive heart failure (CHF) features disturbances in the interstitial environment that may affect the accuracy of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).


A pooled analysis of two studies of hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes randomized to intravenous or subcutaneous insulin was conducted. One study enrolled patients with CHF exacerbation, whereas history of CHF was an exclusion criterion in the other. All patients wore a professional CGM device for at least 24 h. Intravenous insulin was administered according to the institution's nursing-run protocol (duration of 12 and 48 h in non-CHF and CHF protocols, respectively). Subcutaneous insulin was delivered similarly in both groups.


Subjects with CHF (n=43) had higher admission glucose and hemoglobin A1c compared with non-CHF subjects (n=32), but the sensor glucose values were similar. Overall mean absolute relative difference (MARD) was similar between CHF and non-CHF subjects (0.11 vs. 0.08, respectively; P=0.12). MARD was higher in the 100-149 mg/dL (P=0.003) and >199 mg/dL (P = 0.02) strata among CHF subjects. Static glucose and continuous glucose error grid analyses favored the non-CHF group. In multivariable analyses, only glucose coefficient of variation and log sensor time were independent predictors of elevated overall MARD >0.10. After adjustment for other factors, only increasing log sensor time was a significant predictor of elevated MARD in the 100-149 mg/dL strata.


Among hospitalized subjects with type 2 diabetes, CHF exacerbation is not associated with lower sensor accuracy after adjustment for other factors, but this requires confirmation over a wider glucose range.

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