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Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2015 Jun;35(2):199-208. doi: 10.3109/07388551.2013.832142. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Vitamin K series: current status and future prospects.

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School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Sydney , Sydney, NSW , Australia.


The Vitamin K series, particularly menaquinone, have been attracting research attention, due to the potential in reducing both osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. This review provides an overview of the types of vitamin K and their health benefits. This is followed by a critical review of the various biotechnological approaches used in the production of menaquinone, including solid and liquid state fermentations, extraction and recovery. The currently available market information is summarized and future growth prospects are discussed. Recommendations are also given for areas of future research in order to improve the production process for menaquinone and reduce costs.


Biotechnology; Vitamin K; extraction; fermentation; menaquinone; phylloquinone

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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