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J Appl Biomech. 2014 Apr;30(2):310-5. doi: 10.1123/jab.2013-0038. Epub 2013 Sep 13.

Young swimmers' classification based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics.

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Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, and with the Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health and Human Development (CIDESD), Vila Real, Portugal.


The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CDa). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CDa). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F=53.680; P<.001), followed by the dv (F=28.506; P<.001), CDa (F=21.025; P<.001), S (F=6.297; P<.01) and v (F=5.375; P=.01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CDa (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers' profiles.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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