Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 May;1837(5):710-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2013.09.003. Epub 2013 Sep 13.

Diversity of animal opsin-based pigments and their optogenetic potential.

Author information

1
Department of Biology and Geosciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585, Japan.
2
Department of Biology and Geosciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585, Japan. Electronic address: terakita@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp.

Abstract

Most animal opsin-based pigments are typical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and consist of a protein moiety, opsin, and 11-cis retinal as a chromophore. More than several thousand opsins have been identified from a wide variety of animals, which have multiple opsin genes. Accumulated evidence reveals the molecular property of opsin-based pigments, particularly non-conventional visual pigments including non-visual pigments. Opsin-based pigments are generally a bistable pigment having two stable and photointerconvertible states and therefore are bleach-resistant and reusable, unlike vertebrate visual pigments which become bleached. The opsin family contains Gt-coupled, Gq-coupled, Go-coupled, Gs-coupled, Gi-coupled, and Gi/Go-coupled opsins, indicating the existence of a large diversity of light-driven GPCR-signaling cascades. It is suggested that these molecular properties might contribute to different physiologies. In addition, various opsin based-pigments, especially nonconventional visual pigments having different molecular characteristics would facilitate the design and development of promising optogenetic tools for modulating GPCR-signaling, which is involved in a wide variety of physiological responses. We here introduce molecular and functional properties of various kinds of opsins and discuss their physiological function and also their potentials for optogenetic applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinal proteins - you can teach an old dog new tricks.

KEYWORDS:

Non-visual pigment; Opsin diversity; Optogenetics; Phototransduction

PMID:
24041647
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbabio.2013.09.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center