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Antioxid Redox Signal. 2014 May 1;20(13):1977-93. doi: 10.1089/ars.2013.5294. Epub 2014 Jan 8.

Redox-relevant aspects of the extracellular matrix and its cellular contacts via integrins.

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1
1 Institute for Physiological Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, University of Münster , Münster, Germany .

Abstract

SIGNIFICANCE:

The extracellular matrix (ECM) fulfills essential functions in multicellular organisms. It provides the mechanical scaffold and environmental cues to cells. Upon cell attachment, the ECM signals into the cells. In this process, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are physiologically used as signalizing molecules.

RECENT ADVANCES:

ECM attachment influences the ROS-production of cells. In turn, ROS affect the production, assembly and turnover of the ECM during wound healing and matrix remodeling. Pathological changes of ROS levels lead to excess ECM production and increased tissue contraction in fibrotic disorders and desmoplastic tumors. Integrins are cell adhesion molecules which mediate cell adhesion and force transmission between cells and the ECM. They have been identified as a target of redox-regulation by ROS. Cysteine-based redox-modifications, together with structural data, highlighted particular regions within integrin heterodimers that may be subject to redox-dependent conformational changes along with an alteration of integrin binding activity.

CRITICAL ISSUES:

In a molecular model, a long-range disulfide-bridge within the integrin β-subunit and disulfide bridges within the genu and calf-2 domains of the integrin α-subunit may control the transition between the bent/inactive and upright/active conformation of the integrin ectodomain. These thiol-based intramolecular cross-linkages occur in the stalk domain of both integrin subunits, whereas the ligand-binding integrin headpiece is apparently unaffected by redox-regulation.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

Redox-regulation of the integrin activation state may explain the effect of ROS in physiological processes. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanism may open new prospects for the treatment of fibrotic disorders.

PMID:
24040997
PMCID:
PMC3993061
DOI:
10.1089/ars.2013.5294
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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