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J Blood Med. 2013 Aug 30;4:123-8. doi: 10.2147/JBM.S47171. eCollection 2013.

Association of vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism with anemia: a cross-sectional study.

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Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain ; Diagnostic Services, HH Princess AI-Jawhara Centre for Genetic Diagnosis and Research, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain.


Vitamin D deficiency and anemia are common in the Middle East, and vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism have been reported to be associated with an increased prevalence of anemia. In this study, the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism may be associated with anemia in a Bahraini population was tested. Association of hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D levels (deficiency and insufficiency) with anemia was investigated in 421 Bahrainis (213 males and 208 females). In females, the prevalence of anemia was significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency independent of parathyroid hormone levels (odds ratio: 2.9; 95% confidence interval: 2.3-10.5; P = 0.001). In females, the prevalence of anemia appeared to be significantly associated with hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.7; P = 0.01); however, this significant association disappeared when adjusted for vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio: 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 0.75-6.5; P = 0.154). Results from this study suggest that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with anemia in females but not males. Further studies to determine whether vitamin D supplementation could be used to treat anemia are warranted.


anemia; deficiency; hyperparathyroidism; vitamin D

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