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Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep 5;6:161-5. doi: 10.2147/CEG.S50236.

Gastroparesis: a review of current and emerging treatment options.

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Hospital Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA.


Gastroparesis is a motility disorder of the stomach causing delay in food emptying from the stomach without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. The majority of cases are idiopathic. Patients need to be diagnosed properly by formal testing, and the evaluation of the severity of the gastroparesis may assist in guiding therapy. Initially, dietary modifications are encouraged, which include frequent and small semisolid-based meals. Promotility medications, like erythromycin, and antiemetics, like prochlorperazine, are offered for symptom relief. In patients who are refractory to pharmacologic treatment, more invasive options, such as intrapyloric botulinum toxin injections, placement of a jejunostomy tube, or implantation of a gastric stimulator, can be considered. Hemin therapy and gastric electric stimulation are emerging treatment options that are still at different stages of research. Regenerative medicine and stem cell-based therapies also hold promise for gastroparesis in the near future.


Gastroparesis; gastric electrical stimulation; gastric emptying; hemin

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