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World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep 14;19(34):5598-606. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i34.5598.

Epidemiology of esophageal cancer.

Author information

1
Yuwei Zhang, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health and Health Services, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, United States.

Abstract

Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett's esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EsC. Using population based cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the United States; we generated the most up-to-date stage distribution and 5-year relative survival by stage at diagnosis for 1998-2009. Special note should be given to the fact that esophageal cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma, is one of the very few cancers that is contributing to increasing death rates (20%) among males in the United States. To further explore the mechanism of development of EsC will hopefully decrease the incidence of EsC and improve outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

Barrett’s esophagus; Cyclin D1 G870A; Esophageal neoplasm; Polymorphism; Risk factor; Susceptibility

PMID:
24039351
PMCID:
PMC3769895
DOI:
10.3748/wjg.v19.i34.5598
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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