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Neurotoxicology. 2014 Dec;45:232-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2013.08.010. Epub 2013 Sep 12.

Screening for early detection of parkinsonism using a self-administered questionnaire: a cross-sectional epidemiologic study.

Author information

1
University of Washington, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: jlundin2@uw.edu.
2
University of California San Diego, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address: hcheckoway@ucsd.edu.
3
Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, St. Louis, MO, USA; American Parkinson Disease Association Advanced Center for Parkinson Research, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address: criswells@neuro.wustl.edu.
4
Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address: hobsona@neuro.wustl.edu.
5
Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address: rachel.harris.621@gmail.com.
6
Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, St. Louis, MO, USA; American Parkinson Disease Association Advanced Center for Parkinson Research, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address: swisherl@neuro.wustl.edu.
7
Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address: bevanoff@dom.wustl.edu.
8
Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, St. Louis, MO, USA; American Parkinson Disease Association Advanced Center for Parkinson Research, St. Louis, MO, USA; University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address: racetteb@neuro.wustl.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Manganese (Mn) is a common component of welding fume. Exposure to Mn fume has been associated with parkinsonism. A simple and reliable screening tool to evaluate Mn exposed workers for neurotoxic injury would have broad occupational health application.

METHODS:

This study investigated 490 occupational welders recruited from a trade union list. Subjects were examined by a movement disorders specialist using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection 3 (UPDRS3). Parkinsonism, intermediate, and normal groups were defined as UPDRS3 score ≥ 15, 6-15, and <6, respectively. Workers completed a health status questionnaire (PDQ39) and a Parkinson disease (PD) Symptoms Questionnaire. Areas under receiver operator curve (AUC) were analyzed based on these scores, adjusted for age, smoking, race, gender, and neurologist, using normal as the reference.

RESULTS:

The AUC was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.73-0.84) for PDQ39 and 0.78 (95% CI=0.72-0.85) for PD Symptoms Questionnaire score. At 70% sensitivity, the specificity for PDQ39 score and PD Symptoms Questionnaire score for the prediction of parkinsonism was 73.1% and 80.1%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results suggest the questionnaires have reasonably good sensitivity and specificity to predict parkinsonism in Mn exposed workers. These questionnaires could be a valuable first step in a tiered screening approach for Mn exposed workers.

KEYWORDS:

Epidemiology; Manganese; Neurodegenerative disease; Occupational exposure; Parkinson disease; Parkinsonism

PMID:
24035927
PMCID:
PMC3954448
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuro.2013.08.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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