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J Invertebr Pathol. 2013 Nov;114(3):268-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2013.08.012. Epub 2013 Sep 10.

Characterization in biological traits of entomopathogenic nematodes isolated from North China.

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Institute of Plant Protection, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Science/IPM Centre of Hebei Province, 437 Dongguan Street, Baoding 071000, China.


In a series of bioassays, thirty-one isolates that were collected from diverse locations in northern China and the laboratory kept isolate Steinernema carpocapsae All, were compared in order to select superior isolates for biological control of Bradysia odoriphaga. Virulence of the isolates against B. odoriphaga was significantly different among nematode isolates. Tolerance of infective juveniles (IJs) to heat, cold, and desiccation differed significantly among and within species. Strains from S. carpocapsae, S. ceratophorum, S. longicaudum, Heterorhabditis indica, and H. bacteriophora were more heat tolerant than strains from S. feltiae, S. hebeiense, S. monticolum, and H. megidis. Heterorhabditis megidis, H. bacteriophora, and S. carpocapsae showed better cold tolerance than the other species. High desiccation tolerance was recorded for S. carpocapsae, S. hebeiense, and S. ceratophorum. The infectivity of IJ of these species against Galleria mellonella larvae was not significantly different between the treated and non-treated IJ after the nematodes had been exposed to 40°C for 2 h, -5°C for 8 h or 25% glycerin for 72 h. Nematode survival was significantly affected by exposure time and IJ concentration when exposed to 40°C or -5°C. All nematode isolates lost their infectivity against G. mellonella after exposure to -5°C for 16 h, except for H. megidis LFS10, which had a low infectivity of 3.3%. A hierarchical classification analysis classified the isolates in four main clusters. The fourth cluster, composed of 13 isolates, grouped the isolates that scored well for most traits.


Entomopathogenic nematode; Environmental stresses; Infectivity; Tolerance; Virulence

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