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Implement Sci. 2013 Sep 14;8:109. doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-8-109.

Factors influencing pharmacists' adoption of prescribing: qualitative application of the diffusion of innovations theory.

Author information

1
Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3-171 Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1C9, Canada. lisa.guirguis@ualberta.ca.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In 2007, Alberta became the first Canadian jurisdiction to grant pharmacists a wide range of prescribing privileges. Our objective was to understand what factors influence pharmacists' adoption of prescribing using a model for the Diffusion of Innovations in healthcare services.

METHODS:

Pharmacists participated in semi-structured telephone interviews to discuss their prescribing practices and explore the facilitators and barriers to implementation. Pharmacists working in community, hospital, PCN, or other settings were selected using a mix of random and purposive sampling. Two investigators independently analyzed each transcript using an Interpretive Description approach to identify themes. Analyses were informed by a model explaining the Diffusion of Innovations in health service organizations.

RESULTS:

Thirty-eight participants were interviewed. Prescribing behaviours varied from non-adoption through to product, disease, and patient focused use of prescribing. Pharmacists' adoption of prescribing was dependent on the innovation itself, adopter, system readiness, and communication and influence. Adopting pharmacists viewed prescribing as a legitimization of previous practice and advantageous to instrumental daily tasks. The complexity of knowledge required for prescribing increased respectively in product, disease and patient focused prescribing scenarios. Individual adopters had higher levels of self-efficacy toward prescribing skills. At a system level, pharmacists who were in practice settings that were patient focused were more likely to adopt advanced prescribing practices, over those in product-focused settings. All pharmacists stated that physician relationships impacted their prescribing behaviours and individual pharmacists' decisions to apply for independent prescribing privileges.

CONCLUSIONS:

Diffusion of Innovations theory was helpful in understanding the multifaceted nature of pharmacists' adoption of prescribing. The characteristics of the prescribing model itself which legitimized prior practices, the model of practice in a pharmacy setting, and relationships with physicians were prominent influences on pharmacists' prescribing behaviours.

PMID:
24034176
PMCID:
PMC3847669
DOI:
10.1186/1748-5908-8-109
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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