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Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Nov 1;188(9):1110-6. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201305-0925OC.

Native American ancestry affects the risk for gene methylation in the lungs of Hispanic smokers from New Mexico.

Author information

1
1 Lung Cancer Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Abstract

RATIONALE:

Gene promoter methylation detected in sputum predicts lung cancer risk in smokers. Compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW), Hispanics have a lower age-standardized incidence for lung cancer.

OBJECTIVES:

This study compared the methylation prevalence in sputum of NHWs with Hispanics using the Lovelace Smokers cohort (n = 1998) and evaluated the effect of Native American ancestry (NAA) and diet on biomarkers for lung cancer risk.

METHODS:

Genetic ancestry was estimated using 48 ancestry markers. Diet was assessed by the Harvard University Dietary Assessment questionnaire. Methylation of 12 genes was measured in sputum using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The association between NAA and risk for methylation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. The ethnic difference in the association between pack-years and risk for lung cancer was assessed in the New Mexico lung cancer study.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Overall Hispanics had a significantly increased risk for methylation across the 12 genes analyzed (odds ratio, 1.18; P = 0.007). However, the risk was reduced by 32% (P = 0.032) in Hispanics with high versus low NAA. In the New Mexico lung cancer study, Hispanic non-small cell lung cancer cases have significantly lower pack-years than NHW counterparts (P = 0.007). Furthermore, compared with NHW smokers, Hispanic smokers had a more rapidly increasing risk for lung cancer as a function of pack-years (P = 0.058).

CONCLUSIONS:

NAA may be an important risk modifier for methylation in Hispanic smokers. Smoking intensity may have a greater impact on risk for lung cancer in Hispanics compared with NHWs.

Comment in

PMID:
24032348
PMCID:
PMC3863742
DOI:
10.1164/rccm.201305-0925OC
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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