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J Biol Chem. 2013 Oct 25;288(43):31002-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.494120. Epub 2013 Sep 12.

The Ccr4-not protein complex regulates the phase of the Neurospora circadian clock by controlling white collar protein stability and activity.

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From the Center for Circadian Clocks, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.


In the Neurospora circadian negative feedback loop, white collar 1 (WC-1) and WC-2 form the WC complex that activates frequency (frq) transcription. Here we show that Not1 is a WC-interacting protein and is important for maintaining WC levels. The not1 transcript displays a circadian oscillation with a similar phase as frq. Down-regulation of not1 leads to low levels of WC-1 and WC-2 and a delayed circadian phase as a result of increased protein degradation and increased WC activity. Protein purification of Not1 shows that it is part of the Neurospora Ccr4-Not complex. ccr4 is a clock-controlled gene and is regulated directly by the WC complex. Down-regulation of ccr4 results in a phase delay and period lengthening of the clock. Together, our findings suggest that the Ccr4-Not complex participates in the Neurospora clock function by interacting with and regulating the WC complex.


Circadian Clock; Circadian Rhythms; Neurospora; Photobiology; Transcription

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