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Mod Pathol. 2014 Apr;27(4):535-42. doi: 10.1038/modpathol.2013.170. Epub 2013 Sep 13.

Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the lung: report of five cases and review of the literature.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.
2
Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.
3
Department of Surgery, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.
4
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Norton Hospital, Louisville, KY, USA.

Abstract

The current diagnostic criteria for hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung include typical acinar or papillary adenocarcinoma and a component resembling hepatocellular carcinoma and expressing α-fetoprotein (AFP). Distinguishing hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung from hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to lung is difficult in patients with both lung and liver masses and in patients at risk for lung and liver cancer because of smoking and viral hepatitis, respectively. We studied morphologic features of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung and established an immunohistochemical panel to facilitate distinction of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung from hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to lung. Five cases of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and mucicarmine for histomorphologic evaluation. The 14-marker immunohistochemical profile was established for hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung and compared with that of hepatocellular carcinoma. Two cases of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung had signet-ring cell components. Three cases were pure hepatoid adenocarcinoma without components of acinar or papillary adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cells or neuroendocrine carcinoma. Like hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung expresses CK8 (5/5), CK18 (5/5), AFP (3/5) and HepPar1 (5/5), shows cytoplasmic staining with TTF-1 (5/5) and does not express CK14 (0/5). Unlike hepatocellular carcinoma, it expresses CK5/6 (1/5), CK7 (3/5), CK19 (4/5), CK20 (1/5), HEA125 (5/5), MOC31 (5/5), monoclonal CEA (3/5) and napsin A (1/5). An immunohistochemical panel that includes a variety of cytokeratins, monoclonal CEA and EpCAM markers (HEA125 and MOC31) facilitates distinction of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung from hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to lung, especially when correlated with clinical and radiologic findings. We propose modification of the current diagnostic criteria for hepatoid adenocarcinoma of lung. Tumor composition can be either pure hepatoid adenocarcinoma or hepatoid adenocarcinoma with components of typical acinar or papillary adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cells or neuroendocrine carcinoma. AFP expression is not requisite for diagnosis as long as other markers of hepatic differentiation are expressed.

PMID:
24030743
DOI:
10.1038/modpathol.2013.170
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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