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Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Jun;38(6):794-800. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2013.176. Epub 2013 Sep 13.

Satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gel-forming dietary fiber: post-ingestive effects.

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Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.



Viscous or gel-forming dietary fibers can increase satiety by a more firm texture and increased eating time. Effects of viscous or gel-forming fibers on satiety by post-ingestive mechanisms such as gastric emptying, hormonal signals, nutrient absorption or fermentation are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether the effects persist after repeated exposure.


To investigate satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gelled fiber by post-ingestive mechanisms.


In a two-arm crossover design, 32 subjects (24 female subjects, 21±2 y, BMI 21.8±1.9 kg m(-2)) consumed test foods once daily for 15 consecutive days, with 2 weeks of washout. Test foods were isocaloric (0.5 MJ, 200 g) with either 10 g gel-forming pectin or 3 g gelatin and 2 g starch, matched for texture and eating time. Hourly satiety ratings, ad libitum energy intake and body weight were measured on days 1 (single exposure) and 15 (repeated exposure). In addition, hourly breath hydrogen, fasting glucose, insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids were measured.


Subjects rated hunger, desire to eat and prospective intake about 2% lower (P<0.015) and fullness higher (+1.4%; P=0.041) when they received pectin compared with control. This difference was similar after single and repeated exposure (P>0.64). After receiving pectin, energy intake was lower (-5.6%, P=0.012) and breath hydrogen was elevated (+12.6%, P=0.008) after single exposure, but not after repeated exposure. Fasting glucose concentrations were higher both after single and repeated exposure to pectin (+2.1%, P=0.019). Body weight and concentrations of insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids did not change during the study.


Gelled pectin can increase satiety and reduce energy intake by post-ingestive mechanisms. Although the effects were small, the effects on satiety were consistent over time, whereas the effects on energy intake reduction were not.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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