Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2014 Jan;89(1):73-111. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2013.08.008. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

Biomarkers in bladder cancer: translational and clinical implications.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address: liang_cheng@yahoo.com.
2
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
3
Department of Pathology, Cordoba University, Cordoba, Spain.
4
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.
5
Institute of Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology, School of Medicine, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region (Ancona), United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy.

Abstract

Bladder cancer is associated with high recurrence and mortality rates. These tumors show vast heterogeneity reflected by diverse morphologic manifestations and various molecular alterations associated with these disease phenotypes. Biomarkers that prospectively evaluate disease aggressiveness, progression risk, probability of recurrence and overall prognosis would improve patient care. Integration of molecular markers with conventional pathologic staging of bladder cancers may refine clinical decision making for the selection of adjuvant and salvage therapy. In the past decade, numerous bladder cancer biomarkers have been identified, including various tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, growth factors, growth factor receptors, hormone receptors, proliferation and apoptosis markers, cell adhesion molecules, stromal factors, and oncoproteins. Recognition of two distinct pathways for urothelial carcinogenesis represents a major advance in the understanding and management of this disease. Nomograms for combining results from multiple biomarkers have been proposed to increase the accuracy of clinical predictions. The scope of this review is to summarize the major biomarker findings that may have translational and clinical implications.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarkers; Prognosis; Tumorigenesis; Urinary bladder; Urothelial carcinoma

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center