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Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 Jan;33(1):7-21. doi: 10.1007/s10096-013-1944-3. Epub 2013 Sep 12.

Clinical and economic burden of invasive fungal diseases in Europe: focus on pre-emptive and empirical treatment of Aspergillus and Candida species.

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Department of Haematology/Oncology, National Cancer Institute and Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.


Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) have been widely studied in recent years, largely because of the increasing population at risk. Aspergillus and Candida species remain the most common causes of IFDs, but other fungi are emerging. The early and accurate diagnosis of IFD is critical to outcome and the optimisation of treatment. Rapid diagnostic methods and new antifungal therapies have advanced disease management in recent years. Strategies for the prevention and treatment of IFDs include prophylaxis, and empirical and pre-emptive therapy. Here, we review the available primary literature on the clinical and economic burden of IFDs in Europe from 2000 to early 2011, with a focus on the value and outcomes of different approaches.

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