Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Pediatr Nephrol. 2014 Sep;29(9):1507-16. doi: 10.1007/s00467-013-2614-5. Epub 2013 Sep 12.

Cardiovascular changes during chronic hypertensive states.

Author information

Dialysis Unit, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 265 Wielicka Str., 30-663, Krakow, Poland,


It is well established that elevated blood pressure constitutes a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, arrythmias, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease and renal failure. Blood pressure level and the duration of arterial hypertension (HTN) impact target organ damage. Many studies in adults have demonstrated the role of antihypertensive therapy in preventing cardiovascular (CV) events. The so-called hard end-points, such as death, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke, are rarely seen in children, but intermediate target organ damage, including left ventricular hypertrophy, increased intima-media thickness and microalbuminuria, is already detectable during childhood. The goal of antihypertensive treatment is to reduce the global risk of CV events. In the adult population stratification of CV risk is based on blood pressure level, risk factors, subclinical target organ damage and established CV and kidney disease. Increased CV risk begins early in the course of kidney disease, and CV diseases are the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Children with CKD are especially prone to the long-term effects of CV risk factors, which result in high morbidity and mortality in young adults. To improve the outcome, pediatric and adult CKD patients require nephro- and cardioprotection.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center