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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Dec;21(23):13215-21. doi: 10.1007/s11356-013-2124-9. Epub 2013 Sep 13.

Environmental photochemistry of fluoroquinolones in soil and in aqueous soil suspensions under solar light.

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Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, via Taramelli 12, 27100, Pavia, Italy,


The photodegradation fate of widely used fluoroquinolone (FQ) drugs has been studied both at the water-soil interface and in soil at actual concentrations (500 ng g(-1)) under natural solar light. Both human and veterinary drugs have been examined, namely ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, marbofloxacin and moxifloxacin. After spiking and irradiation, samples were submitted to microwave-assisted extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). FQs degradation was faster in aqueous soil suspension than in neat soil (but lower than in "clean" water). A number of byproducts were identified by HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after a post-extraction cleanup based on a molecularly imprinted polymer phase, for a more accurate detection. The distribution in the suspension was intermediate between those observed in soils and in aqueous solutions.

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