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Physiol Meas. 2013 Oct;34(10):1239-52. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/34/10/1239. Epub 2013 Sep 11.

Improved Cole parameter extraction based on the least absolute deviation method.

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  • 1Department of Precision Instrumentation Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.


The Cole function is widely used in bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) applications. Fitting the measured BIS data onto the model and then extracting the Cole parameters (R0, R∞, α and τ) is a common practice. Accurate extraction of the Cole parameters from the measured BIS data has great significance for evaluating the physiological or pathological status of biological tissue. The traditional least-squares (LS)-based curve fitting method for Cole parameter extraction is often sensitive to noise or outliers and becomes non-robust. This paper proposes an improved Cole parameter extraction based on the least absolute deviation (LAD) method. Comprehensive simulation experiments are carried out and the performances of the LAD method are compared with those of the LS method under the conditions of outliers, random noises and both disturbances. The proposed LAD method exhibits much better robustness under all circumstances, which demonstrates that the LAD method is deserving as an improved alternative to the LS method for Cole parameter extraction for its robustness to outliers and noises.

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