Send to

Choose Destination
Plant Physiol. 2013 Oct;163(2):578-90. doi: 10.1104/pp.113.225045. Epub 2013 Sep 9.

Identification of cyclic GMP-activated nonselective Ca2+-permeable cation channels and associated CNGC5 and CNGC6 genes in Arabidopsis guard cells.

Author information

National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China.


Cytosolic Ca(2+) in guard cells plays an important role in stomatal movement responses to environmental stimuli. These cytosolic Ca(2+) increases result from Ca(2+) influx through Ca(2+)-permeable channels in the plasma membrane and Ca(2+) release from intracellular organelles in guard cells. However, the genes encoding defined plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable channel activity remain unknown in guard cells and, with some exceptions, largely unknown in higher plant cells. Here, we report the identification of two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cation channel genes, CNGC5 and CNGC6, that are highly expressed in guard cells. Cytosolic application of cyclic GMP (cGMP) and extracellularly applied membrane-permeable 8-Bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-cGMP both activated hyperpolarization-induced inward-conducting currents in wild-type guard cells using Mg(2+) as the main charge carrier. The cGMP-activated currents were strongly blocked by lanthanum and gadolinium and also conducted Ba(2+), Ca(2+), and Na(+) ions. cngc5 cngc6 double mutant guard cells exhibited dramatically impaired cGMP-activated currents. In contrast, mutations in CNGC1, CNGC2, and CNGC20 did not disrupt these cGMP-activated currents. The yellow fluorescent protein-CNGC5 and yellow fluorescent protein-CNGC6 proteins localize in the cell periphery. Cyclic AMP activated modest inward currents in both wild-type and cngc5cngc6 mutant guard cells. Moreover, cngc5 cngc6 double mutant guard cells exhibited functional abscisic acid (ABA)-activated hyperpolarization-dependent Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel currents, intact ABA-induced stomatal closing responses, and whole-plant stomatal conductance responses to darkness and changes in CO2 concentration. Furthermore, cGMP-activated currents remained intact in the growth controlled by abscisic acid2 and abscisic acid insensitive1 mutants. This research demonstrates that the CNGC5 and CNGC6 genes encode unique cGMP-activated nonselective Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis guard cells.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms


Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center