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Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2013;306:43-81. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-407694-5.00002-X.

Endothelial progenitor cells--potential new avenues to improve neoangiogenesis and reendothelialization.

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Department of Plastic Surgery, academisch ziekenhuis Maastricht, MUMC+, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:


The term endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) was established more than 10 years ago and is used to refer to a group of circulating cells that display endothelial lineage qualities and are able to home to areas of ischemia or vascular injury and to facilitate the repair of damaged blood vessels or develop new vessels as needed. This chapter reviews the current lineage relationships among all the cells called EPC and will clear the terminology used in EPC research. Furthermore, an overview of the clinical and in vitro research, as well as cytokine and drug interactions and potential EPC applications, is given.


Cytokines; Drug interactions; Endothelial cells; Hematopoietic cells; Neovascularization; Regeneration

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