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Resuscitation. 2014 Jan;85(1):112-8. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.08.010. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

Effects of repetitive or intensified instructions in telephone assisted, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an investigator-blinded, 4-armed, randomized, factorial simulation trial.

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Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.
Department of General Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Management, Austria.
NOTRUF NOE GmbH, Emergency Call and Coordination Centre, Lower Austria, Austria.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:



Compression depth is frequently suboptimal in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We investigated effects of intensified wording and/or repetitive target depth instructions on compression depth in telephone-assisted, protocol driven, bystander CPR on a simulation manikin.


Thirty-two volunteers performed 10 min of compression only-CPR in a prospective, investigator-blinded, 4-armed, factorial setting. Participants were randomized either to standard wording ("push down firmly 5 cm"), intensified wording ("it is very important to push down 5 cm every time") or standard or intensified wording repeated every 20s. Three dispatchers were randomized to give these instructions. Primary outcome was relative compression depth (absolute compression depth minus leaning depth). Secondary outcomes were absolute distance, hands-off times as well as BORG-scale and nine-hole peg test (NHPT), pulse rate and blood pressure to reflect physical exertion. We applied a random effects linear regression model.


Relative compression depth was 35 ± 10 mm (standard) versus 31 ± 11 mm (intensified wording) versus 25 ± 8 mm (repeated standard) and 31 ± 14 mm (repeated intensified wording). Adjusted for design, body mass index and female sex, intensified wording and repetition led to decreased compression depth of 13 (95%CI -25 to -1) mm (p=0.04) and 9 (95%CI -21 to 3) mm (p=0.13), respectively. Secondary outcomes regarding intensified wording showed significant differences for absolute distance (43 ± 2 versus 20 (95%CI 3-37) mm; p=0.01) and hands-off times (60 ± 40 versus 157 (95%CI 63-251) s; p=0.04).


In protocol driven, telephone-assisted, bystander CPR, intensified wording and/or repetitive target depth instruction will not improve compression depth compared to the standard instruction.


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Chest compression; Manikin; Out of hospital cardiac arrest; Telephone

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