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Dig Liver Dis. 2014 Jan;46(1):56-61. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2013.07.020. Epub 2013 Sep 6.

The impact of opiate pain medications and psychoactive drugs on the quality of colon preparation in outpatient colonoscopy.

Author information

1
Division of Gastroenterology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.
2
Division of Gastroenterology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address: GSAYUK@wustl.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Suboptimal colon preparation is a significant barrier to quality colonoscopy. The impact of pharmacologic agents associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility on quality of colon preparation has not been well characterized.

AIMS:

Evaluate impact of opiate pain medication and psychoactive medications on colon preparation quality in outpatients undergoing colonoscopy.

METHODS:

Outpatients undergoing colonoscopy at a single medical centre during a 6-month period were retrospectively identified. Demographics, clinical characteristics and pharmacy records were extracted from electronic medical records. Colon preparation adequacy was evaluated using a validated composite colon preparation score.

RESULTS:

2600 patients (57.3 ± 12.9 years, 57% female) met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. 223 (8.6%) patients were regularly using opioids, 92 antipsychotics, 83 tricyclic antidepressants and 421 non-tricyclic antidepressants. Opioid use was associated with inadequate colon preparation both with low dose (OR = 1.4, 95%CI 1.0-2.1, p = 0.05) and high dose opioid users (OR = 1.7, 95%CI 1.1-2.9, p = 0.039) in a dose dependent manner. Other significant predictors of inadequate colon preparation included use of tricyclics (OR = 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.0, p = 0.012), non-tricyclic antidepressants (OR = 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.0, p = 0.013), and antipsychotic medications (OR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.4-3.4, p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Opiate pain medication use independently predicts inadequate quality colon preparation in a dose dependent fashion; furthermore psychoactive medications have even more prominent effects and further potentiates the negative impact of opiates with concurrent use.

KEYWORDS:

Cathartics; Colonoscopy; Opiate pain medications; Psychotropic drugs

PMID:
24012559
PMCID:
PMC4017778
DOI:
10.1016/j.dld.2013.07.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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