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Eur Urol. 2014 Aug;66(2):352-60. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.08.046. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Intraoperative continuous norepinephrine infusion combined with restrictive deferred hydration significantly reduces the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing open radical cystectomy: results of a prospective randomised trial.

Author information

1
Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Therapy, Inselspital, University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
2
Department of Urology, Inselspital, University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
3
Department of Urology, Inselspital, University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address: fiona.burkhard@insel.ch.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Open radical cystectomy (ORC) is associated with substantial blood loss and a high incidence of perioperative blood transfusions. Strategies to reduce blood loss and blood transfusion are warranted.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether continuous norepinephrine administration combined with intraoperative restrictive hydration with Ringer's maleate solution can reduce blood loss and the need for blood transfusion.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

This was a double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, single-centre trial including 166 consecutive patients undergoing ORC with urinary diversion (UD). Exclusion criteria were severe hepatic or renal dysfunction, congestive heart failure, and contraindications to epidural analgesia.

INTERVENTION:

Patients were randomly allocated to continuous norepinephrine administration starting with 2 μg/kg per hour combined with 1 ml/kg per hour until the bladder was removed, then to 3 ml/kg per hour of Ringer's maleate solution (norepinephrine/low-volume group) or 6 ml/kg per hour of Ringer's maleate solution throughout surgery (control group).

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:

Intraoperative blood loss and the percentage of patients requiring blood transfusions perioperatively were assessed. Data were analysed using nonparametric statistical models.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:

Total median blood loss was 800 ml (range: 300-1700) in the norepinephrine/low-volume group versus 1200 ml (range: 400-2800) in the control group (p<0.0001). In the norepinephrine/low-volume group, 27 of 83 patients (33%) required an average of 1.8 U (±0.8) of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). In the control group, 50 of 83 patients (60%) required an average of 2.9 U (±2.1) of PRBCs during hospitalisation (relative risk: 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.77; p=0.0006). The absolute reduction in transfusion rate throughout hospitalisation was 28% (95% CI, 12-45). In this study, surgery was performed by three high-volume surgeons using a standardised technique, so whether these significant results are reproducible in other centres needs to be shown.

CONCLUSIONS:

Continuous norepinephrine administration combined with restrictive hydration significantly reduces intraoperative blood loss, the rate of blood transfusions, and the number of PRBC units required per patient undergoing ORC with UD.

KEYWORDS:

Blood transfusion; Intraoperative hydration; Norepinephrine; Open radical cystectomy

PMID:
24012203
DOI:
10.1016/j.eururo.2013.08.046
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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