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Biomed Opt Express. 2013 Jul 29;4(8):1451-63. doi: 10.1364/BOE.4.001451. eCollection 2013.

Continuous real-time photoacoustic demodulation via field programmable gate array for dynamic imaging of zebrafish cardiac cycle.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, 5045 Emerging Technologies Building, 3120 TAMU, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 7784, USA.


A four dimensional data set of the cardiac cycle of a zebrafish embryo was acquired using postacquisition synchronization of real time photoacoustic b-scans. Utilizing an off-axis photoacoustic microscopy (OA-PAM) setup, we have expanded upon our previous work with OA-PAM to develop a system that can sustain 100 kHz line rates while demodulating the bipolar photoacoustic signal in real-time. Real-time processing was accomplished by quadrature demodulation on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in line with the signal digitizer. Simulated data acquisition verified the system is capable of real-time processing up to a line rate of 1 MHz. Galvanometer-scanning of the excitation laser inside the focus of the ultrasonic transducer enables real data acquisition of a 200 by 200 by 200 pixel, volumetric data set across a 2 millimeter field of view at a rate of 2.5 Hz.


(100.2000) Digital image processing; (110.5120) Photoacoustic imaging; (110.5125) Photoacoustics

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