Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2013 Oct;27(5):661-72. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.06.005. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

Brain health and cognitive and mood disorders in ageing women.

Author information

Department of Gynecology, Federal University of São Paulo, UNIFESP/EPM, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


Improved medical, economic and socio-cultural conditions have increased life expectancy, especially for women. The incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, psychiatric and degenerative brain diseases, especially stroke and dementia, are more frequently seen in older people. Each of these conditions can separately, or in combination, result in similar signs and symptoms of cognition, memory, mood and motor function disorders. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of normal ovarian ageing and the menopause on the nervous system, as well as the hallmarks of disease entities; many of these are described here. Also, the complexity of these issues is increased by the similarity of their effects to those of the polypharmacy and metabolic imbalances that are common in this population. These are complex issues, and it may be difficult and time-consuming to discern between normal brain functional changes and specific pathology in practice. Early evaluation of correctable possibilities, including imaging studies, may be key to management. Referral to specialists for diagnosis before starting clinical treatment is useful to address these issues.


aging; bain; cognition; sexual hormone; woman

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center