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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013 Sep 1;5(9). pii: a012716. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a012716.

DNA damage sensing by the ATM and ATR kinases.

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Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.


In eukaryotic cells, maintenance of genomic stability relies on the coordinated action of a network of cellular processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair, cell-cycle progression, and others. The DNA damage response (DDR) signaling pathway orchestrated by the ATM and ATR kinases is the central regulator of this network in response to DNA damage. Both ATM and ATR are activated by DNA damage and DNA replication stress, but their DNA-damage specificities are distinct and their functions are not redundant. Furthermore, ATM and ATR often work together to signal DNA damage and regulate downstream processes. Here, we will discuss the recent findings and current models of how ATM and ATR sense DNA damage, how they are activated by DNA damage, and how they function in concert to regulate the DDR.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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