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J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014 Jul;142:62-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.08.011. Epub 2013 Aug 27.

Genomic and non-genomic actions of progestogens in the breast.

Author information

1
University Women's Hospital, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address: endo.meno@med.uni-tuebingen.de.
2
Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Beijing Obstetrics&Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
3
University Women's Hospital, Tübingen, Germany.
4
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Düsseldorf, Germany.

Abstract

Evidence is growing that progestogens may enhance breast cancer risk under hormone therapy in the postmenopause or hormonal contraception. However, differences may exist within the progestogen class and certain progestogens may have a higher potency in terms of breast cancer risk. The mechanism(s) by which these progestogens might influence breast cancer risk appear to be mediated via genomic and/or non-genomic effects triggered by activated progestogen receptors. In general, regulation of gene expression by progestogen receptors seems to be a multifactorial process involving both actions which often converge. In the present review, we describe the known genomic and non-genomic effects in the breast, especially focusing on the progestins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Menopause'.

PMID:
23994274
DOI:
10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.08.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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