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J Subst Abuse Treat. 2014 Feb;46(2):189-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2013.07.010. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

The relationship between pregnancy intention and change in perinatal cigarette smoking: an analysis of PRAMS data.

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Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:


This study examined the relationship between pregnancy intention and change in perinatal cigarette smoking from a large national sample of women in the United States, the 2004-2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). The study sample consisted of 49,510 female smokers. Smoking rates and quantities were captured prior to pregnancy, the last 3 months of pregnancy, and postpartum. Changes in smoking were compared between pregnancies classified as intended, mistimed, and unwanted. Regardless of pregnancy intention status, most behavior change happened before the final 3 months of pregnancy. Overall, most women were able to quit or reduce smoking. However women with unwanted pregnancies had 0.86 times the adjusted odds of quitting/reducing cigarette smoking compared to women with intended or mistimed pregnancies (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95). Findings suggest early smoking cessation interventions lead to greater change in smoking, regardless of pregnancy intention, although change is more difficult for women with unwanted pregnancies.


Epidemiology; Family planning; Pregnancy; Smoking

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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