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Food Chem. 2013 Dec 15;141(4):3606-13. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.015. Epub 2013 Jun 13.

Two new saponins from tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum), and their anti-inflammatory and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

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Institute of Food and Nutraceutical Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.


Jiaogulan tea has been commercialised globally. This study investigated the chemical components and health properties of a new jiaogulan genotype, tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Two new saponins, (23S)-21β-O-methyl-3β,20ξ-dihydroxy-12-oxo-21,23-epoxydammar-24-ene-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)][β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside (4) and 23β-H-3β,20ξ-dihydroxy-19-oxo-21,23-epoxydammar-24-ene-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)][β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)]-α-L-arabinopyranoside (5), together with one lactone, 3,5-dihydroxyfuran-2(5H)-one (1), and two flavonoids, rutin (2) and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (3), were characterised in the aerial parts of tetraploid jiaogulan. The chemical structures of the five isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR, HR-MS spectra and chemical degradation. The five compounds were also examined and compared with the methanol extract and n-butanol soluble fraction of the jiaogulan for their inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-1β, IL-6 and COX-2 mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages, and their in vitro α-glucosidase suppressing capacities. The results from this study may be used to promote the potential application of jiaogulan in functional foods.


Anti-inflammation; Gynostemma pentaphyllum; Jiaogulan; NMR; Saponin; α-Glucosidase inhibition

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