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Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2014 Dec;58(12):1520-39. doi: 10.1177/0306624X13498693. Epub 2013 Aug 27.

Music therapy for prisoners: pilot randomised controlled trial and implications for evaluating psychosocial interventions.

Author information

1
GAMUT-The Grieg Academy Music Therapy Research Centre, Uni Health, Uni Research, Bergen, Norway christian.gold@uni.no.
2
GAMUT-The Grieg Academy Music Therapy Research Centre, Uni Health, Uni Research, Bergen, Norway Centre for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
3
Bjørgvin Prison, Correctional Services Western Norway, Bjørgvin, Norway.
4
GAMUT-The Grieg Academy Music Therapy Research Centre, Uni Health, Uni Research, Bergen, Norway.
5
Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
6
Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
7
GAMUT-The Grieg Academy Music Therapy Research Centre, Uni Health, Uni Research, Bergen, Norway The Grieg Academy, University of Bergen, Norway.

Abstract

Mental health problems are common among prison inmates. Music therapy has been shown to reduce mental health problems. It may also be beneficial in the rehabilitation of prisoners, but rigorous outcome research is lacking. We compared group music therapy with standard care for prisoners in a pilot randomised controlled trial that started with the establishment of music therapy services in a prison near Bergen in 2008. In all, 113 prisoners agreed to participate. Anxiety (STAI-State [State-Trait Anxiety Inventory], STAI-Trait), depression (HADS-D [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale]), and social relationships (Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire [Q-LES-Q]) were assessed at baseline; every 2 weeks in the experimental group; after 1, 3, and 6 months in the control group; and at release. No restrictions were placed on the frequency, duration, or contents of music therapy. Duration of stay in the institution was short (62% stayed less than 1 month). Only a minority reached clinical cutoffs for anxiety and depression at baseline. Between-group analyses of effects were not possible. Music therapy was well accepted and attractive among the prisoners. Post hoc analysis of within-group changes suggested a reduction of state anxiety after 2 weeks of music therapy (d = 0.33, p = .025). Short sentences and low baseline levels of psychological disturbance impeded the examination of effects in this study. Recommendations for planning future studies are given, concerning the careful choice of participants, interventions and settings, comparison condition and design aspects, choice of outcomes, and integration of research approaches. Thus, the present study has important implications for future studies evaluating interventions for improving prisoners' mental health.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ISRCTN22518605.

KEYWORDS:

experimental study; mental health; offenders; psychosocial interventions; research design

PMID:
23985355
DOI:
10.1177/0306624X13498693
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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