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Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:302392. doi: 10.1155/2013/302392. Epub 2013 Jul 28.

Membrane localization of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase by CD44 regulates the activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 in osteoclasts.

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Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.


CD44, MT1-MMP, and MMP9 are implicated in the migration of osteoclast and bone resorption. This study was designed to determine the functional relationship between CD44 and MT1-MMP in the activation of pro-MMP9. We used osteoclasts isolated from wild-type and CD44-null mice. Results showed that MT1-MMP is present in multiple forms with a molecular mass ~63, 55, and 45 kDa in the membrane of wild-type osteoclasts. CD44-null osteoclasts demonstrated a 55 kDa active MT1-MMP form in the membrane and conditioned medium. It failed to activate pro-MMP9 because TIMP2 binds and inhibits this MT1-MMP (~55 kDa) in CD44-null osteoclasts. The role of MT1-MMP in the activation of pro-MMP9, CD44 expression, and migration was confirmed by knockdown of MT1-MMP in wild-type osteoclasts. Although knockdown of MMP9 suppressed osteoclast migration, it had no effects on MT1-MMP activity or CD44 expression. These results suggest that CD44 and MT1-MMP are directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of pro-MMP9 activation. Surface expression of CD44, membrane localization of MT1-MMP, and activation of pro-MMP9 are the necessary sequence of events in osteoclast migration.

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