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Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2013 Jan;18(1):33-7.

Comparison of vaccination-related pain in infants who receive vapocoolant spray and breastfeeding during injection.

Author information

1
Research PhD student (Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center), A Member of Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, a member of Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Instructor, department of Midwifery, Nursing and Midwifery school, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Vaccination is one of the most common painful procedures in infants. Despite the irreparable consequences and complications of acute pain in infants, and existence of pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods for pain control, pain control in infants has received less attention. Therefore, this research aimed to compare the vaccination-related pain in infants younger than 6 months who receive vapocoolant spray and breastfeeding during injection, in order to suggest a strategy to provide emotional, mental, and physical health for infants.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This is a randomized clinical trial study on 144 infants less than 6 months of age, referred to Ibn Sina Health Care Center in 2009, who were selected by convenience sampling. Forty-eight infants were allocated through systematic random sampling to each study group (i.e., breastfeeding, vapocoolant spray, and control group). Inclusion criteria were: Fully conscious infants, lack of any disease (sensory, motor abnormalities, cold, etc.), taking no medication, exclusive breastfeeding, vaccination for hepatitis B and DTP, regular visits to health care center, infants with Iranian nationality, and quiet infants who did not cry. The infant was excluded if he/she was crying and it was impossible to make him/her quiet before injection. Data were gathered by a questionnaire (six questions) and checklist [neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS)]. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods through SPSS.

RESULTS:

The findings suggest that breastfeeding during vaccination has a more analgesic effect on vaccination pain, compared to application of vapocoolant spray before vaccination. In 64.6% of the infants, breastfeeding during vaccination caused analgesia, while 25% of the infants who received vapocoolant spray experienced analgesic effect. There was a significant difference in pain between the infants who received vapocoolant spray and those on breastfeeding during injection (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION:

It seems that breastfeeding during vaccination in infants under 6 months of age is an effective, natural, safe, accessible, and inexpensive method without side effects to reduce vaccination-related pain.

KEYWORDS:

Breastfeeding; pain; vaccination; vapocoolant spray

PMID:
23983725
PMCID:
PMC3748552

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