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J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014 Aug;27(4):311-21. doi: 10.1111/jhn.12154. Epub 2013 Aug 24.

Changes in reported food intake in adults with type 2 diabetes in response to a nonprescriptive dietary intervention.

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School for Policy Studies, Centre for Exercise Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.



There is a lack of published data about the food intake of patients with type 2 diabetes and the changes that they make in response to patient-centred dietary advice. The present study describes the changes reported in response to a nonprescriptive dietary intervention based upon UK dietary guidelines.


Two hundred and sixty-two patients (87 women and 175 men) from the Early ACTivity in Diabetes (ACTID) trial who received the dietary intervention returned 4 days food diaries at baseline and 6 months. Nonparametric tests were used to examine changes in meal patterns, total energy intake and energy from food groups between baseline and 6 months.


Mean (SD) number of reported meals day(-1) was 3.0 (0.3) and mean (SD) number of snacks was 1.1 (0.6) at both baseline and 6 months for men and women. Men reported decreasing energy intake by a mean (SD) of 912 (1389) KJ/day [218 (332) kcal day(-1) ] (P < 0.001) and women by 515 (1130) KJ/day [123 (270) kcal day(-1) ] (P < 0.001). Men reported reducing energy from alcoholic drinks [-234 (527) KJ day(-1) ; P < 0.001], white bread [-113 (402) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.001], biscuits [i.e. cookies -67 (205) KJ day(-1) ; P < 0.001] and cakes [-50 (410) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.0012]. Women reported reducing energy from mixed main meals [-134 (456) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.036], pasta and rice [-79 (326) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.019], high-energy drinks [-59 (159) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.001] and white bread [-59 (368) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.042].


Men and women in the Early ACTID study reported small changes in higher-energy and lower-fibre foods and drinks in response to patient-centred dietary advice.


dietary change; dietary habits; dietary intervention; food groups; type 2 diabetes

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