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Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2013 Sep;11(9):1171-8. doi: 10.1586/14779072.2013.816478. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

A review of current therapies used in the treatment of congestive heart failure.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Rush University Medical Center 1653 W Congress Pkwy Chicago, IL 60612, USA.


Congestive heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalizations for patients older than 65 years. There are almost 700,000 new cases of heart failure annually and re-hospitalization rates are as high as 50% within the first few months of initial discharge. These statistics translate to healthcare costs that nearly reached US$40 billion in 2010. Understanding the therapeutic agents that can not only help decrease mortality and morbidity but also decrease the rate of re-hospitalizations is vital in the management of congestive heart failure. Here, the authors highlight the various classes of drugs used in the treatment of heart failure. They then provide a focused review examining the multiple clinical trials that have emphasized the evaluation of mortality, morbidity and hospitalization rates in heart failure patients who are receiving the different types of therapeutic agents.

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