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Plant Physiol. 2013 Oct;163(2):896-906. doi: 10.1104/pp.113.223503. Epub 2013 Aug 26.

Arabidopsis phospholipase dδ is involved in basal defense and nonhost resistance to powdery mildew fungi.

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Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.


Plants have evolved a complex array of defensive responses against pathogenic microorganisms. Recognition of microbes initiates signaling cascades that activate plant defenses. The membrane lipid phosphatidic acid, produced by phospholipase D (PLD), has been shown to take part in both abiotic and biotic stress signaling. In this study, the involvement of PLD in the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) was investigated. This nonadapted pathogen is normally resisted by a cell wall-based defense, which stops the fungal hyphae from penetrating the epidermal cell wall. Chemical inhibition of phosphatidic acid production by PLD increased the penetration rate of Bgh spores on wild-type leaves. The analysis of transfer DNA knockout lines for all Arabidopsis PLD genes revealed that PLDδ is involved in penetration resistance against Bgh, and chemical inhibition of PLDs in plants mutated in PLDδ indicated that this isoform alone is involved in Bgh resistance. In addition, we confirmed the involvement of PLDδ in penetration resistance against another nonadapted pea powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe pisi. A green fluorescent protein fusion of PLDδ localized to the plasma membrane at the Bgh attack site, where it surrounded the cell wall reinforcement. Furthermore, in the pldδ mutant, transcriptional up-regulation of early microbe-associated molecular pattern response genes was delayed after chitin stimulation. In conclusion, we propose that PLD is involved in defense signaling in nonhost resistance against powdery mildew fungi and put PLDδ forward as the main isoform participating in this process.

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